Key recent contributions to the academic literature & individual country burdens
Lottie Brown, 2020. The global incidence and diagnosis of fungal keratitis Lancet Infectious Diseases. Supplementary data.
Emily Hammond and Charles McDonald, 2020. The global impact of Aspergillus infection on COPD with estimates of COPD prevalence, annual hospitalisations and invasive aspergillosis incidence. BMC Pulm Med 2020. Supplementary data.
Darcy Emery 2020. In The global distribution of actinomycetoma and eumycetoma has updated global maps of mycetoma and separated Actinomycetoma from Eumycetoma PLoS NTD. Supplementary data.
Nida Ashraf et.al 2020. Re-drawing the global maps of histoplasmosis, blastomycosis and coccidioidomycosis, Mycopathologia.
Jacob Baker, et.al. 2019. New maps of histoplasmosis in South East Asia – implications for diagnosis in AIDS, Emerging Microbes & Infections. Supplementary material Figure S1 Revised
While 70% of women have vulvovaginal candidiasis (thrush or yeast infection) at least once in their lifetime, 138 million suffer recurrent episodes in any one year and at least 372 million at some point in their lives. Lancet Infect Dis 2018. View the burden of disease map.
In July 2017 the WHO published guidelines for managing advanced HIV disease and rapid initiation of anti-retroviral therapy.
WHO HIV summary WHO HIV full guidelines
Dr Radha Rajasingham: Global burden of disease of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis: an updated analysis in Lancet ID May 2017
Control of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) will require access to as well as better and faster fungal infection diagnostics, as argued by GAFFI’s Senior Advisors in Emerging Infectious Diseases (2017).
David Denning has recently published an Editorial calling upon all public health mycologists
Matthew Kneale et al published data that shows that millions of people worldwide are deprived access to antifungal medicines that are widely available elsewhere. “Global access to antifungal therapy and it’s variable cost” was published in August 2016.
David Denning constructed scenarios to estimate avoidable deaths from 2016 to 2020 and showed that 550 AIDS patients can be saved every day by detecting and treating fungal infections.
David Denning: Roadmap for the diagnosis and management of fungal disease in Thorax 2015
Joanne Armstead estimate the “Different manifestations of aspergillosis in cystic fibrosis adults in 30 countries”
Darius Armstrong- James et al describe “A neglected epidemic: fungal infections in HIV/AIDS” in Trends in Microbiology March 2014
Angela Loyse et al found that in most subsaharan countries flucytosine is not registered and unavailable, and while amphotericin B is registered in about 50% of the countries, it is not available in most, depriving these populations of the best drugs for the very common cryptococcal meningitis.
Jeremy Day et al convincingly demonstrated that the combination of flucytosine and amphotericin B significantly reduced mortality in cryptococcal meningitis in AIDS
Gordon Brown et al summarized the current status of fungal diseases in Science Translational Medicine in December 2012
Adenis et al published a modelling study that concluded disseminated histoplasmosis in AIDS is more common than TB in AIDS in Latin America. An estimated 22,600 infected, with 6710 to 15 657 cases of symptomatic HIV-associated histoplasmosis and 6,710 deaths (2018, Lancet Infectious Diseases). Appendices.
Over 138 million women are affected by recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (thrush or yeast infection) across the world according to a recently published paper in Lancet Infectious Diseases, by David Denning and colleagues. Appendix
O’Neill report: Antimicrobials in Agriculture & the Environment
O’Neill report: Rapid Diagnostics & Stopping Unecessary Use of Antibiotics
WHO report: Universal Eye Health – A global action plan 2014-2019
ECDC report: Risk assessment on the impact of environmental usage of triazoles on the development and spread of resistance to medical triazoles in Aspergillus species
WHO report: Mycetoma a neglected tropical disease.
Consensus on the approach to diagnosis of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis in low and middle income countries (LMICs) would benefit from confirmation in clinical studies – see meeting report in Emerging Infectious Diseases 2018.
Individual country burden estimates:
Algeria, Chekiri-Talbi, Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis, 2016;
Algeria, Chekiri-Talbi, Journal de Mycologie Médicale, 2017;
Argentina, Riera, J. Fungi, 2018;
Austria, Lass-Flörl, 2015;
Bangladesh, Gugnani, Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis, 2017;
Belgium, Lagrou, Mycoses 2015;
Brazil, Giacomazzi, Mycoses, 2016;
Burkino Faso, Bamba, J. Fungi, 2018;
Cameroon, Mandengue, J. Fungi, 2018;
Canada, Dufresne, Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis, 2017;
Chile, Duarte, Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis, 2017;
Colombia, Alvarez-Moreno, J. Fungi, 2018;
Czech Republic, Chrdle, Mycoses, 2015;
Denmark, Mortensen, Mycoses, 2015;
Dominican Republic, Gugnani, Mycoses, 2015;
Ecuador, Zurita, Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis, 2017;
Egypt, Zaki, Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis, 2017;
Ethiopia,Tufa, J Fungi, 2019
France, Gangneux, J. Mycol Med. 2016;
Germany, Ruhnke, Mycoses, 2015;
Ghana, Ocansey, J Fungi 2019
Greece, Gamaletsou, Eur J Clin Microbiol. Inf dis 2016;
Guatemala, Medina, Eur J Clin Microbiol Inf Dis, 2017;
Hungary, Sinko, Mycoses, 2015;
India, Agarwal, PLOS One 2014;
Iran, Hedayati, Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, 2018;
Ireland, Dorgan, Mycoses, 2015;
Israel, Ben-Ami, Mycoses, 2015;
Jamaica, Gugnani, Mycoses, 2015;
Jordan, Wadi, J. Fungi, 2018;
Kazakhstan, Kemaikin, Problems of Medical Mycology, 2016;
Kazakhstan, Kemaikin, J. Fungi, 2018;
Kenya, Guto, JIDC, 2016;
Korea, Huh, Eur J Clin Microbiol Inf Dis, 2017;
Kyrgyzstan, Turdumambetova, J Fungi, 2019;
Malawi, Kalua, J. Fungi, 2018;
Malaysia, Devi Velayuthan, J. Fungi, 2018;
Mexico, Corzo-Leon, Mycoses, 2015;
Mozambique, Sacarlal, J. Fungi, 2018;
Namibia, Dunaiski, ECCMID poster, 2019;
Nepal, Shrestha, Mycoses, 2015;
Netherlands, Buil, Mycoses 2020;
Nigeria, Oladele, Mycoses, 2015;
Norway, Nordoy, J. Fungi, 2018;
Pakistan, Jabeen, Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis, 2017;
Paraguay, Aguilar, ECCMID poster, 2019;
Peru, Bustamante, Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis, 2017;
Phillipines, Batac, Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis, 2017;
Portugal, Sabino, Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis, 2017;
Qatar, Taj-Aldeen, Mycoses, 2015;
Republic of Congo, Amona, Mycoses, 2020
Romania, Mares, J. Fungi, 2018;
Russia, Klimko, Mycoses, 2015;
Senegal, Badiane, Mycoses, 2015;
Serbia, Arsenijevi´c, J. Fungi, 2018;
South Africa, Schwartz, SAMJ, 2019;
Spain, Rodriguez Tudela, Clin Microbiol Infect 2015
Sri Lanka, Jaysakera, Mycoses, 2015;
Taiwan, Huang, J Fungi 2019
Tajikstan, Bobokhojaev, J Fungi, 2019
Tanzania, Faini, Mycoses, 2015;
Thailand, Chayakulkeeree, Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis, 2017;
Trinidad and Tobago, Denning, Mycoses, 2015;
Turkey, Hilmioğlu-Polat, Mycoses, 2018;
Uganda, Parkes-Ratanshi, Mycoses, 2015;
Ukraine, Osmanov, Mycoses, 2015;
United Kingdom, Pegorie, J.Infection, 2016;
Uruguay, Macedo-Vinas, J. Fungi, 2018;
Uzbekistan, Tilavberdiev, Republic of, Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis, 2017;
Vietnam, Beardsley, Mycoses, 2015;